Our Mission

(Test 2) Carboncopies is a non-profit foundation that provides support to scientists in fields related to Whole brain emulation (WBE).  We believe WBE to be the most promising approach to achieving mind uploading based on the current state of science and technology. Whole brain emulation involves accurate computational modeling of neural tissue at the scale of complete brains, as well as development of neuromorphic hardware on which to run simulations of these models. Many advances are required in neurobiology, brain imaging, computational hardware, nanotechnology, and philosophy of mind in order to reproduce the functions of a mind in an artificial substrate. To direct and accelerate this process, our organization is focused on:

  • Encouraging scientific collaboration to create stepping-stone technologies

  • Reviewing scientific literature and media conversations

  • Maintaining technology roadmaps to address engineering challenges

  • Increasing awareness of the Substrate-Independent Mind concept among the general public

  • Hosting conferences and providing informational material

Over the past few years, Whole brain emulation has been widely accepted as a valid and important research goal in neuroscience labs, and as a consequence, steady progress towards mind uploading is being made today. If you share our vision and would like to get involved, we encourage you to join our volunteer team!



Randal koene


Koene founded Carboncopies in 2010. He earned his Ph.D. in Computational Neuroscience at the Department of Psychology at McGill University, and his M.Sc. in Electrical Engineering with a specialization in Information Theory at Delft University of Technology. Between 2008 and 2010, Koene was Director of the Department of Neuroengineering at the Fatronik-Tecnalia Institute in Spain, the third largest private research organization in Europe. He is a former Professor at the Center for Memory and Brain of Boston University, and is co-founder of the Neural Engineering Corporation of Massachusetts. Randal is currently lead scientist at Kernel.




Graduated with a Bachelor’s in Physics and minor in Computer Science. Her main research interests are machine learning, brain theories, neuromorphic hardware, computational brain models and bioinformatics. 



Treasurer & Secretary

Graduated from UNC-Chapel Hill in 2005 with dual Bachelor's of Sciences in Computer Science and Mathematics. He has made a career out of multiple IT based roles, including programmer, network administrator, web and database developer, and business solution analyst. His interests are in computing, neuroscience, computational science, statistics, and humanism. He is also fascinated by the idea of human minds as complex information processes performed by biological neural tissues. He also is interested in validating Substrate-Independent Mind ideas with evidence-based research and understanding Substrate-Independent Minds from a humanistic point of view. 



Chief financial officer

Has vast experience in finance, product strategy, recruiting, and business development. In addition to other projects he is working on, he helps facilitate various types of financing for life extension, human intelligence, and biotech for-profit and non-profit entities. He wants to be a part of what he believes is the next step for humanity.


Stefania Schino


Received her bachelor's degree in Accounting and Finance from Bari University of Economy with expertise in project management, strategy and funding for the creation of new businesses and European funding. Her area of interest includes innovative technologies for life extension and transhumanism.



communications director

Received his Ph.D. in Computer Science and Bachelor’s in Psychology, with expertise in artificial life, evolutionary algorithms, image-processing, optimized search, topology, distributed processing, and machine learning. He has acted as an advisor for Lifeboat Foundation and Brain Preservation Foundation and has worked in the big data industry for several years. His interest and viewpoint on Substrate-Independent Minds are expressed in his book ‘A Taxonomy and Metaphysics of Mind-Uploading’.




Graduated from DePauw University's 5-year double degree program in 2012 with a Bachelor's of Arts in Psychology and Bachelor's of Music in clarinet performance. Alicia is now currently working as a clinical research coordinator at the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, WI. Her interest in Carboncopies stems from her goals to study the physiology of our subjective sense of self and if this phenomenon can be preserved in a non-biological substrate.


abolfazl alipour


Abolfazl Alipour holds a Doctor of Pharmacy from the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, where he also serves as the head of student neuroscience research team. His research and publications relate EEG, behavioral methods, and computational approaches to the mechanisms of perception in the brain. Abolfazl's involvement with Carboncopies evolved from his interest in the application of Substrate-Independent Minds to life extension.


Bill Croughan


Bill double-majored in math and computer science at Carnegie Mellon University. He is currently earning his PhD at UC Berkeley, developing and applying quantitative methods to study the function and mechanism of hippocampal replay events.




Navid works as a computational pathologist at 3scan, a San Francisco based start-up building robotic microscopy tools and software for large-scale sample analysis and 3D visualizations. He received his medical degree from Cedars-Sinai and completed his pathology residency at UPMC. Navid is interested in brain scanning technology and data analysis.


ilya sapranidI


Received his Bachelor's degree in Complex Systems Science from Saint-Petersburg State University and is currently pursuing a Master's in Technology Entrepreneurship and Innovation. His areas of interest include startup management, neural networks, data analysis, and virtual reality. He intends to focus his contribution on researching economic viability and sustainability of mind uploading, as well as its political and ethical implications. He is also interested in raising public awareness of the Substrate-Independent Minds movement.


James Ingallinera


Founder & CEO of Tribe Coliving in New York City. Adviser to Carboncopies.



In 2008, Anders Sandberg and others published the landmark piece “Whole Brain Emulation: A Roadmap" describing current and speculative technology related to Whole Brain Emulation (WBE). This document was written to be a starting point for the scientific communities interested in pursuing whole brain emulation. Since then, the concept of WBE has become more widespread and even popularized in editorials like the Guardian and films like Transcendence. In addition, there have been significant advances in neuromorphic technology and other related fields that have further transformed the landscape of WBE to reflect a respected field of scientific inquiry rather than a science-fiction narrative.


After almost 10 years, it is the goal of our group to update the 2008 roadmap. We are tackling this task in two parts. The first will be a series of technical reviews of current technology. Since most of our volunteers are students at various levels of training, this first step in updating the roadmap will not only create a collection of interdisciplinary information related to WBE for interested readers, but will also provide volunteers with the knowledge and skills for engaging in the second phase, the roadmap. The roadmap will describe things like technological and scientific needs, prospects for development, and how these timelines impact the development of WBE.


Technical Review Series

The technical review series (TRS) will be individual, standalone encyclopedia-like entries available on the Carboncopies website that will be routinely updated by our volunteers. Each page will provide an overview of fields of research related to WBE like those seen in the 2008 roadmap (ie, scanning technology, computing resources), but will also include additional fields like neuromorphic hardware, computational brain models, and artificial intelligence. Unlike the original roadmap, these overviews are meant to be an unbiased introduction to these fields of research in the context of whole brain emulation and to provide an overview of the current research and technology. Our volunteers work together to develop outlines for these reviews and independently collect information on the current and past research projects to be included in the review.



The roadmap will be written after the completion the TRS and will provide a foundation for Carboncopies to assist with planning and coordination of technological developments in the coming decades. Unlike the technical review, this publication will include more opinion and assumption similar to the original roadmap. We will detail short and long term goals, subactivities, key problems and uncertainties, the minimal components of a successful finished project as well as crucial next steps and calls for research. It is our hope that this roadmap will be written with the input of researchers from around the globe who are interested in WBE and serve to develop the relationships for future collaboration.





Whole brain emulation (WBE) is the principal method proposed by which to accomplish SIM and many other purposes (e.g. general brain research, research into clinical neural prostheses, research into artificial intelligence, etc.). In academic research, the shorter term "brain emulation" is sometimes used, and terms such as "whole-brain activity mapping" are used to describe data acquisition tools developed and used in closely related fields of neuroscience. Whole brain emulation uses high resolution data about specific brain structure (e.g. the connector) and specific brain activity (e.g. electrophysiology).


What are substrate-independent minds (SIM)?

Neuroscience research has demonstrated that a mind's functions are implemented through neurobiological mechanisms of the nervous system. If the same functions are recreated in a different operating substrate (e.g. a special "neuromorphic device", software executed in a digital computer, etc.) such that they produce the same results as the original mind then it is a substate-independent mind. The possibility for execution of this process is supported by the strong neuroscientific consensus that behavior and experience, phenomena correlated with what we consider mental processes of the mind, emerge from biophysical functions that are adequately described in terms of classical physics. These information processing functions of mind are computable, so it follows that the mind is computable.


What Sim technology & research Is COMPLETED?

Neuroinformatics investigations that seek to map the detailed "connector" of the human brain are essential for the whole brain emulation (WBE) approach to SIM. Well-known examples of research in this field are the Blue-Brain Project, large-scale brain models created by Eugene Izhikevich and the DARPA Synapse Project. Another important component is scanning technology capable of rapid brain tissue preparation and in-vivo recording, and increased spatial and temporal resolution. Examples are the Automatic Tape-Collecting Lathe Ultramicrotome (ALTUM) developed by Kenneth Hayworth and use of optogenetics and nanotechnology. See the article Fundamentals of Whole Brain Emulation: State, Transition and Update Representations and Whole Brain Emulation: A Roadmap for an introduction and an overview of projects.


Is SIM related to ideas about "mind uploading"?

The popular term "mind uploading" (sometimes called "mind copying" or "mind transfer") is the hypothetical process of copying mental content (including long-term memory and "self") from a particular brain substrate to a computational device, such as a digital, analog, quantum-based or artificial neural network. However, "uploading" has very different meanings in the conversations of different communities. In some cases the target medium referred to is intended merely to store the data, while in others it is also intended to carry out the functions, i.e. to emulate the"uploaded mind".



To participate in the 2018 Carboncopies Survey, please follow the link below to the Google Form. Your responses will remain confidential and are used solely for the purposes of improving our efforts at Carboncopies.

Survey form: https://goo.gl/forms/xvqN9S4LgXWlJAyM2

Thank you.


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your animal life is over machine life has begun. The road to immortality

The guardian


In California, radical scientists and billionaire backers think the technology to extend life – by uploading minds to exist separately from the body – is only a few years away. 


the fallacy of favoring Gradual Replacement Mind Uploading Over Scan-and-Copy

institute of ethics and emerging technologies


This paper demonstrates a chain of reasoning that establishes metaphysical equivalence between these two methods in terms of preserving personal identity.


The Neuroscientist Who Wants To Upload Humanity To A Computer

Popular science


Read about Dr. Randal Koene recruiting top neuroscientists to help him make humans live forever.


Breakthrough philanthropy

Thiel foundation


Watch the entire program of this innovative event, featuring the most visionary non-profits innovating in service of humanity.


Randal Koene on whole brain emulation

Machine learning research institute


An interview with the Machine Learning Research Institute and Dr. Randal Koene on Whole Brain Emulation.


Experimental enhancement of neurphysiological function

Frontiers in systems neuroscience


Enhancing brain function entails controlling neuronal function. There are several methods available for this which led to some relevant experimental data. Read about them here.


winter intelligence conference

future of humanity institute 


Watch Dr. Koene discuss Substrate Independent Minds. 



Issues Magazine


In pursuing a Utopian world of perfect post-humans, we may irrevocably undermine what makes us human in the first place. Our lives are a composite of actions and experiences, and our minds depend on our bodies and the environment - but do they have to? 





In this interview, Dr. Randal Koene gives a wonderful overview of the current state and future prospects of R&D regarding substrate-independent minds.


Carboncopies-Realistic Routes to Substrate-Independent Minds

Kurzweil accelerating intelligence


What might brains and minds look like in the future? Read how Carboncopies is offering a networking platform and hub around which experts in the individual fields relevant to ASIM can gather and exchange ideas.


whole brain emulation, a roadmap

the future of humanity institute and oxford university


Whole brain emulation (WBE), the possible future one‐to‐one modelling of the function of the human brain, is academically interesting and important for several reasons. Read about why in this roadmap WBE roadmap.


Advances towards substrate independent minds

methodology at carboncopies

Neural interfaces, Neural Prostheses and Whole Brain Emulation


a New Strategy for Human Evolution, Congress Proceedings

2045 Strategic social initiative

This is the Advance Release version (0.71a) of the Congress Proceedings & Transcripts for Global Future 2045: Towards a New Strategy for Human Evolution. The Advance Release version contains some – but not all – transcripts of talks given at the Congress.  


Humanity plus youtube videos

humanity hong kong

Videos of conference presentations, interviews with interesting people, montages of ideas, attempts at short documentaries, and other amazing collections.


randal koene - substrate independent minds

singularity summit

Dr. Koene presents the concept of substrate-independent minds (SIM) and gives an outline of a feasible approach to SIM by means of whole brain emulation.


The Neuroscientist Who Wants To Upload Humanity To A Computer

oxford agi society 

The AGI conferences are the only major conference series devoted wholly and specifically to the creation of AI systems possessing general intelligence at the human level and ultimately beyond. By gathering together active researchers in the field, for presentation of results and discussion of ideas, we accelerate our progress toward our common goal.




Intelligence unbound

the future of uploaded and machine minds by russell blackford


Intelligence Unbound explores the prospects, promises, and potential dangers of machine intelligence and uploaded minds in a collection of state-of-the-art essays from internationally recognized philosophers, AI researchers, science fiction authors, and theorists. Compelling and intellectually sophisticated exploration of the latest thinking on Artificial Intelligence and machine minds Features contributions from an international cast of philosophers, Artificial Intelligence researchers, science fiction authors, and more Offers current, diverse perspectives on machine intelligence and uploaded minds, emerging topics of tremendous interest Illuminates the nature and ethics of tomorrow’s machine minds—and of the convergence of humans and machines—to consider the pros and cons of a variety of intriguing possibilities Considers classic philosophical puzzles as well as the latest topics debated by scholars. Covers a wide range of viewpoints and arguments regarding the prospects of uploading and machine intelligence, including proponents and skeptics, pros and cons.


A taxonomy and metaphysics of mind-uploading

by keith wiley


Mind Uploading: The process of transferring one's mind from the brain to a new substrate, generally a computer. It is the stuff of science fiction, immediately recognizable in contemporary literature and cinema. However, it has also become increasingly respectable--or at least approachable--within technological, neurological, and philosophical circles. This book begins with a rich taxonomy of hypothetical procedures by which mind-uploading might be achieved, even if only in the realm of thought experiment. This is likely the most thorough collection of such procedures yet compiled and should form the basis of any reader's personal philosophy of mind and mind-uploading. It then offers one such philosophy of mind, along with an analysis and interpretation of the scenarios in the taxonomy through the lens of this philosophy. This book will be an important component of any curious reader's developing philosophy of mind and mind-uploading.


Tag Categories

transcending biology: reverse engineering the brain

2018 by Keith Wiley

Summary of the Roadmap session of the first 2018 Carboncopies workshop on whole brain emulation.



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